Posts Tagged ‘Dr. Shock’

Exercise and Mental Health

By Dr Shock at DrShockMD website

Healthy people exercising

A recent review about the relationship between exercise and mental health in the elderly discussed the results of clinical research and biological explanations for the effects of exercise on mental health. Exercise is studied in the elderly in depression, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Dr. Shock has discussed the topic of exercise and depression before on his blog. The conclusion was that exercise is more effective than no treatment and that for mild to moderate depression it is efficacious and for severe depression it should be added to other treatments in the treatment program. In this more recent review on exercise and mental health the focus is on the elderly. Data on elderly patients are scarcer. Nevertheless investigations have shown that aerobic exercise at an intensity consistent with public health recommendations can be regarded as an effective treatment of mild and moderate depression. There is some evidence for a possible dose-response effect of exercise on depression. Treatment not prevention? Indeed, this topic has not yet been extensively studied in the elderly yet.

What does that mean: aerobic exercise at an intensity consistent with public health recommendations?

Basic recommendations from the The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA).

  • Do moderately intense aerobic exercise 30 minutes a day, five days a week
  • Or Do vigorously intense aerobic exercise 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week
  • And Do eight to 10 strength-training exercises, 10-15 repetitions of each exercise twice to three times per week
  • And If you are at risk of falling, perform balance exercises
  • And Have a physical activity plan.

What is a physical activity plan?
In short consult your GP before starting to exercise.

Older adults or adults with chronic conditions should develop an activity plan with a health professional to manage risks and take therapeutic needs into account. This will maximize the benefits of physical activity and ensure your safety.

Physical Exercise and Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Epidemiological studies have associated exercise with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Exercise as treatment for dementia showed efficacy for mood status, psychosocial functioning, physical health and caregiver distress
  • Daily 30 minutes of exercise diminishes the number of hospitalization needed, decreased depressive symptoms, increased quality of life in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
  • In comparison with a sedentary group, the group with a year of exercise intervention improved in quality of life

Physical Exercise and Parkinson’s Disease
Also in Parkinson’s Disease epidemiological studies have shown that exercise can protect against the disease. The disease is associated with tremor, rigidity, and hypokinesia which can result in falls and tiredness.The main advantage of exercise in PD is improvement of functional capabilities due to strength and balance training. This improves motor skills, improves their quality of life and reduces the number of falls.

Although somewhat limited, evidence suggests that exercise training is beneficial to patients with PD, especially in functional capacity and ADLs improvement

The protective effect of exercise can be explained by effects on the brain as can be read in the Neuroscience of Exercise on Dr. Shock’s blog.

Deslandes, A., Moraes, H., Ferreira, C., Veiga, H., Silveira, H., Mouta, R., Pompeu, F., Coutinho, E., & Laks, J. (2009). Exercise and Mental Health: Many Reasons to Move Neuropsychobiology, 59 (4), 191-198 DOI: 10.1159/000223730

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What does exercise do to your brain? Specifically how can exercise improve your mood, your memory and your ability to process information aka your ability to think (cognate)?

Dr. Walter W. van den Broek, MD, PhD, (aka Dr. Shock), a Dutch Psychiatrist, has a website that answers these and many other questions about neuroscience for laypeople.  Read his blog post below to learn more about the effects of exercise on your brain.

Neuroscience of Exercise by Dr. Shock, MD

The Benefits of Exercise

  • In children, college students and young adults, exercise or physical activity improves learning and intelligence scores
  • Moreover, exercise in childhood increases the resilience of the brain in later life resulting in a cognitive reserve
  • The decline of memory, cortex and hippocampus atrophy in aging humans can be attenuated by exercise
  • Physical activity improves memory and cognition
  • Exercise protects against brain damage caused by stroke
  • Exercise promotes recovery after brain injury
  • Exercise can be an antidepressant

The brain needs certain ingredients to flourish or to life up to the expectations of every day problems. The brain has priority when it comes to certain ingredients. A variety of foods can be beneficial for learning. Positive effects on brain function have been reported for fish oil, teas, fruits, folate, spices, cocoa, chocolate and vitamins.

How does exercise improve the brain?

  • With exercise the number of neurons increase in the hippocampus, a brain structure important to memory and learning.
  • Also synaptic plasticity increases in a certain part of the hippocampus due to exercise: the dentate gyrus.
  • Spine density increases in certain parts of the hippocampus.
  • Exercise also increases and improves the small blood vessels throughout the brain.
  • Exercise can change the function of neurotransmitters and can activate the monoamine system.

And from Henriette van Praag, from Trends in Neuroscience:

Recent research indicates that the effects of exercise on the brain can be enhanced by concurrent consumption of natural products such as omega fatty acids or plant polyphenols. The potential synergy between diet and exercise could involve common cellular pathways important for neurogenesis, cell survival, synaptic plasticity and vascular function. Optimal maintenance of brain health might depend on exercise and intake of natural products.


van Praag, H. (2009). Exercise and the brain: something to chew on Trends in Neurosciences, 32 (5), 283-290 DOI. Read more here: 10.1016/j.tins.2008.12.007

Read D. Shock’s full article at his website here.

And for those that want to know more about exercise effects on your brain as you age, read more on Exercise, Experience and the Aging Brain at this abtract  here.

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